Radford Bulletin Term 1, Week 4 – 22 February 2017

JS Grandfriends Day

Friday, 10 March, 8am-11am in the Junior School

Y7-Y10 Social

Friday, 17 March, TB Millar Hall, 7-9pm

JS Presentation - Dr Judith Locke

Thursday, 2 March, 6pm, RA Young Hall

Staff Insights

Paul Southwell, Head of Junior School

Leadership can't be a job title, instead perhaps a village approach

20 February 2017

Focusing upon the development of 'the whole child' requires us to approach this with the sense that it takes a village.

As our school year commences our Junior School has been heavily engaged in looking at 'leadership' ? both at our student/Year 6 stage, where we have been electing our 'badge leaders', and within our staff year level teams where we are continuing to grow as a Professional Learning Community.

Leadership can be defined as the following:

  1. the office or position of a leader
  2. capacity to lead
  3. the act or an instance of leading.

Leadership does indeed have many facets, often aligning both learning to lead and actually leading as one.

Leadership training for us therefore centres around our wellbeing programs where our girls and boys explore growth mindsets, attempt challenges and learn from the experience (whether successful or not), both as individuals and teams.

Our Year 6 students commenced their formal 'leadership training' during the Year 5 Camp last year. As mentioned above, we commenced by placing them in structured challenges, working together to attain success. From there we continued to build greater understanding of leadership, team, challenge, support and resilience ? things they have worked upon in all our classrooms and previous years, now coming together for a reason.

Now, should you talk to a Year 6 student after our student elections, I feel you would get a strong sense of understanding from them of what is and what isn't leadership. A sense that it does 'take a village', and that while our 'badge leaders' have specific roles to support our Junior School, all our Year 6 students will stand as one, a year level of leaders supporting each other, serving others and influencing our younger years on what may be achieved by a team of leaders.

As an IB Primary Years Programme school, focusing upon the development of 'the whole child' requires us to also approach this in a 'village style'. Our staff teaching teams must remain as flexible teams and groups. Teams that can remain agile and forward thinking, requiring a broad spread of skills, expertise, personalities and protocols.

We adopt a teacher- and team-driven approach where we collaborate internally and externally, focusing upon the real challenges in delivering the written, the taught and the assessed. While we engage inwardly, we also look outward as an internationally minded school, using an increasing range of tools and enhanced Professional Learning.

As we continue to grow, our teachers continue to take a firmer grasp of Jill Thompson quote: 'You don't need to be in a leadership position to be a leader'. Our teachers, as leaders, are making change happen. They are the ones who walk with your sons and daughters, understanding problems and obstacles that stand in their way. They are the ones who build their learning and teaching skills to best ensure our continued focus across our school is always seeking the best outcomes for each Radford College student.

Perhaps, instead of simply writing about leadership, I should share an example. Let's look no further than last Friday evening and a Reading Challenge outcome.

  • Our student body took on a challenge as individuals, team cohorts and a whole Junior School. New students felt a sense of belonging, prior to starting.
  • The same student body ensured their families would be involved in the final outcome. They convinced an extremely large number in our school community to dress in costumes or decorated hats to 'celebrate' together.
  • Some led more than others, but all had input and involvement and debate.
  • Our staff rose to the challenge, quietly updating and encouraging. Some within our staff team led a little more, but all took on the challenge and the outcomes, targeting and supporting better outcomes for our girls and boys.

Moving away from one person to a village!

Image for article: Chaplain's reflection: Be perfect... really?

Chaplain's reflection: Be perfect... really?

20 February 2017

Don?t just love your neighbour. ?I?ll raise you?, says Jesus: ?love your enemy!?

Jesus said: 'be perfect, just like your Father in heaven is perfect.' (The end of Matthew 5 and the last four weeks of Sunday readings.)

What an utterly ridiculous phrase ? were it not for the work of God who draws us into God's own heart that is perfect love.

This 'perfect' is the end point, the 'teleos', the time when there is no more 'horizon'. The same text in Luke does not use the word 'perfect', but 'compassion' (Luke 6.36). This is a helpful rendering. That is, our end point, the point where we have come to the end of the horizon and see, face to face, there, our love will be complete. This imperative of Jesus concludes a most confronting passage, namely 'love your enemy'.

'You have heard that it was said, an eye for an eye?'
Jesus says, 'no'. 'If they hit you on one cheek, turn and give them the other.
If they take your jacket, give them also your shirt.'
Do for others what you want them to do for you.
You have heard that it was said, 'love your neighbour and hate your enemy.'
Jesus says, 'no, love your enemy.' That's right, 'love your enemy; pray for them'.

The heart of following Jesus is neighbour and enemy love: Neighbour and enemy love! There is no escaping it.

The stepping stones Jesus uses to mark out the pathway for life clearly abolish any inclination for violence or retribution.

It saddens me greatly that often when people think of Christians, they may picture a people who are fearful, judgemental, adversarial, big in talk of love yet small in practice. They may think of nasty people who are self-righteous and quick to throw stones or build walls. My sadness is deep because this picture has some evidence in many Christian actions whilst expressing the antithesis of the character of Jesus. Jesus' love is relentless, wide, unconditional, freely given, endlessly available, but not without courage and passion. Jesus himself does not judge (leaving that to God the Father). Yet Jesus' life is ended through religious-inspired violence. His death in state-sanctioned execution comes not because he challenged people's beliefs but because he challenged power.

One example. Turning the other cheek.

Turning the cheek is not an act of submissive weakness. It is at the heart of Jesus' non-violent revolution and takes on humankind's perverse addiction to death-making and renders it void.

In ancient Hebrew, the right is the hand of power, authority, sovereignty, blessing.
The left is unholy, perverse, used for cursing, inclined to evil (e.g. Ecclesiastes 10.2; Matthew 25.33).

Turning the cheek is to offer the right side of one's face and challenge the use of the other hand, the left hand. A question is posed to the aggressor: will your violence be exposed, 'left handed', sinister? Will you show your 'hand' to have no authority, just brutality? To give the other cheek is to say your second blow is free, but it has to be left handed, and by your left hand you will be judged.

The 2008 film Gran Torino is awash with biblical imagery and Christian references while addressing state and cultural From the film Gran Torino, Warner Bros. Picturesviolence. I propose the final scene is the perfect example of turning the other cheek. It ends with Walt dead on the pavement, fallen in the crucifix position. Moments before he stood at the gate of the gang leaders and drug lords and literally called them out. Walt puts forward his 'other cheek' and invites a blow. He says he has light, utters the Hail Mary and reaches for his lighter. Next, the gang leaders are triggered into an orgy of gun fire. Cancer was going to kill Walt, but this sacrificial act released his Hmong neighbours from the bonds of gangland violence. There was no way to trap the brutal gang leaders, but they now were condemned, not by accusation, but by their own hand ? the murder of Walt was public and witnesses no longer impossible to find.

There is no violence in God, only love. The more we draw near to God, the more 'light' we possess, the more we understand: violence exposes its own character, and suffering love is the gift that heals and redeems. This is the love God freely gives. It is the love we grow into, for the healing and redeeming of all. For the sake of our communities, neighbourhoods, world, may Christ draw us nearer to the horizon and make us complete in compassion. Amen.


Image for article: Robyn Evans (JS Specialist Art) presents at Indian conference

Robyn Evans (JS Specialist Art) presents at Indian conference

22 February 2017

Laura Cook, Communications

Robyn presented a paper at the first International Conference on Creativity and Cognition in Art and Design.

By Laura Cook, Communications Officer

Junior School Specialist Art Teacher Robyn Evans last month presented a paper at the first International Conference on Creativity and Cognition in Art and Design in Bangalore, India.

Robyn is undertaking action research on her teaching practice and completed the paper as part of working toward her ISTAA Experienced Teacher qualification.

Entitled 'Independent Learning Paths: An Inquiry Model for Arts Education in the Primary Setting', Robyn's paper details a model of teaching she developed to better understand how students can function independently in the art room.

Her research took place over six months in a Year 4 art classroom in 2016, and offered great insight into the creative process. Students benefited from Robyn's critical reflection on her own teaching practice and the subsequent refinement of her teaching method.

In conducting her research, Robyn identified five Modes of Action observed in students working independently:

  1. The Aspirational Mode – simultaneously inspiration and planning
  2. The Experimental Mode – skill workshops and toolbox development, identifying skills
  3. Critical Analysis Mode – critical thinking made visible, reflecting back, doing a skills audit, embracing change
  4. The Consolidation Mode – synthesis of skills and thinking
  5. The Metacognitive Mode – insight into personal learning method, thinking about thinking.

Working on a ceramics unit, Robyn asked her students to list and order what kind of thinking they felt they experienced during the creative process. She then graphed these elements of the art inquiry and found  that the most frequently mentioned elements in the process were inspiration and planning, followed by practise, experimentation and focus/concentration. The most often mentioned attitudes were risk taking and curiosity. Elements that were mentioned less than 10 times, and therefore not graphed, included discussion, modelling and instructions, which are elements of a standard lesson and things often associated with traditional teaching methods. This led Robyn to the assertion that 'it is inspiration, not teaching, that will drive students to want to learn skills', because 'as soon as children are inspired, they are driven to act'.

The unit resulted in a wealth of beautiful, colourful ceramic pots and items, shown below.

Student artwork

The paper concludes:

Inspiration and agency are a powerfully sustaining mix, over and above the transference of skills. Inspiration can drive the acquisition of skills and the tool is the planning done by the children. Creativity is complex and sophisticated. The art classroom can not only be about divergent thinking, it must also be rich in convergent and metacognitive thinking so that students can discern and examine their own thoughts and direct them into purposeful action. Students and educators can develop rich insight into their working method by mapping the elements of their learning and teaching. Engagement with a shift toward rich, purposeful thinking nurtures transformation into higher knowledge, mastery and independence for the people whom we teach.

Robyn says her findings will undoubtedly influence her teaching practice going forward. She sees this model as encouraging students to plan their own methods for learning, identifying skills they need, critically analysing their own work and formulating their own methods for creativity. It provides the opportunity to further engage students in different types of thinking and will help students generate better insight. It won't, however, be the only thing she relies on; rather, it will be just another tool in her teaching armoury and something that has framed and refined her approach.

The conference in India was a partnership between the National Institute of Design and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences.

It was a meeting place for people working in both the brain research and art and design fields and an opportunity to explore questions about creativity and thinking, and Robyn felt this tied in well with the PYP here at Radford and its focus on inquiry and use of art as a thinking tool.

Robyn with Prof Arne Dietrich

Robyn feels that Bangalore, the IT hub of India and recently voted the world's most dynamic city, was the ideal setting for a conference on creativity. It is a place of many worlds with its juxtaposition of old and new, traditional and progressive, and Robyn was glad to take advantage of opportunities like seeing the traditional method of printing fabrics while she was there.

Robyn will soon present her findings to ACT educators at the 'Diving in deeper: seeing beyond' Reggio Emilia conference at Canberra Grammar School on 18 March.

Her paper has also been published in the hardcover proceedings of the conference, entitled Creativity and Cognition in Art and Design, published by Bloomsbury Press, India.

For more information on anything discussed in this article, please email Robyn at robyn.evans@radford.act.edu.au.

Radford P&F Association crest

P&F Annual General Meeting

22 February 2017

Andrew herring, P&F Secretary

Nominations open, everyone is invited to attend.

Annual General Meeting
Date: Thursday 16 March
Time: 7pm
Venue: The Pavilion, Radford College

The Radford College Parents and Friends Association plays an important role in building community throughout the College. In addition to organising events throughout the year including the Art Show and Fete, the Association is a vehicle for the parent voice in the College, acting as a link between the College Executive, the College Board and the parent body. As parents and caregivers of students enrolled in the College, you are automatically a member of the Association.

Each year a Management Committee and Office Bearers are elected from the membership, to steer the operations of the Association for the forthcoming year. The Annual General Meeting of the Association is to be held on 16 March 2017, commencing at 7pm. I would encourage you all to attend and if you felt inclined, to nominate for election to the Management Committee.

If you would like further information regarding the Association or the responsibilities of the Management Committee, please do not hesitate to contact Secretary Andrew Herring on andrew.herring@herringlawyers.com.au, or our outgoing President John Shevlin on john.shevlin@act.gov.au.

Image for article: Students embrace service learning opportunities

Students embrace service learning opportunities

22 February 2017

Students help out community partners at a range of events

By Communications Manager Mick Bunworth

It?s been a busy start to 2017 for the College service learning program, with Radford students helping out at many events during February.

Director of Service Learning George Huitker says some students have identified volunteering opportunities themselves, while others have taken advantage of service work organised for them by the College, based on existing relationships with partner organisations including: OzHarvest, Lifeline Book Fair, Hartley Lifecare, RAID basketball and the Heart Kids fundraiser.

Radford students helping at the Lifeline Book FairStudents have also been assisting with: Junior School bushwalks, the classrooms at Black Mountain School and Cranleigh School, the stables for Pegasus Riding for the Disabled and the woodchop arena and the sheep section for the Royal National Capital Agricultural Society Show.

Mr H said he had been particularly impressed with the Year 9 and Year 10 students, many of whom had already completed their required service learning hours and had indicated they wanted to do more during the year.

Some highlights of the forthcoming service learning events include assisting with the running of the Dream Cricket Gala Day at the Reid Oval, which will be attended by the Governor-General, His Excellency the Honourable General Sir Peter Cosgrove AK MC, and the L?Arche Disco in the TB Millar Hall in May.

Radford Online for multiple devices

Radford Online Announcements feature

22 February 2017

Phil O'Regan, Head of Secondary School

New "Announcements" feature on the updated Radford Online Dashboard.

By Phil O'Regan, Deputy Principal - Head of Secondary School

Over the next week we will be releasing Announcements, the newest feature of the updated Radford Online Dashboard. All parents, students and staff will see this tailored newsfeed which features personalised Announcements tagged to year levels, activities and user roles. Cocurricular information will continue to be communicated via email as will urgent announcements.

Each user?s Announcements feed will be a central location for their Radford correspondence. Over the coming month you will continue to receive email notification as we transfer to this new system.

In addition, the Dashboard is a launch pad to accessing information relating to your child?s academic progress, such as viewing subject outlines, assessment schedules, student timetables and reviewing past reports.

We welcome your feedback during this transition period and encourage you to provide this via the link on the Dashboard. If you require assistance, please contact our Helpdesk or Mr Matthew Heinrich.

Image for article: Dirrum Dirrum Festival 2017

Dirrum Dirrum Festival 2017

21 February 2017

Huw Smith, Year 12 student

Planning is underway for this year's exciting event scheduled for 4 and 5 August 2017.

By Huw Smith, Year 12 student

The Dirrum Dirrum Festival is a student run forum for the exploration of dangerous ideas through captivating and passionate speakers.

Each annual festival features a theme that runs throughout all the presentations, speakers and activities.

In 2016, the theme was 'Igniting Action' and featured a large spread of speakers, including Akram Azimi, Jessica Watson and Frank Brennan. We had our first 'festival' aspect, bringing in a multitude of information stations, food stalls and live music. The atmosphere was amazing, filled with lots of discussion and forward thinking minds. Listening to the speakers promoted deeper thought and understanding of the world around us, and the possibilities available.

This year's festival will be a two-day event, with speakers and interactive sessions, coupled with great food and live music. The 2017 Festival theme is 'For the Common Good', and our program will be built up surrounding the ideas and projects surrounding the theme.

Over 1200 attended the event last year. We are confident even greater student and wider community participation will be a feature of the 2017 festival.

The Dirrum team strives to model and encourage a greater capacity for young people to engage in and lead more inclusive, just, open, collaborative, creative, understanding and sustainable communities.

Watch this space for more information, Q & As and updates from the Dirrum17 team as the term continues, leading up to the festival on 4 and 5 August.

We hope to make it as thought provoking, inclusive, creative and informative as ever.

Image for article: SchoolTV: Drugs and alcohol edition

SchoolTV: Drugs and alcohol edition

14 February 2017

A resource designed for parents and schools to assist in raising happy, well and resilient youth.

How much do you know about drug and alcohol abuse?

There is no single age group of people more affected by alcohol and drugs than our young people.

For some, a one time or infrequent use of alcohol or drugs can result in tragedy: alcohol poisoning, an accident or fall when under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or an arrest associated with alcohol or drugs.

Young people who use alcohol and drugs before their brain has fully developed, are at increased risk for future addiction. Those who start drinking alcohol before the age 15 are five times more likely to develop alcohol abuse or dependence than those who first use alcohol at age 18 or older.

This edition answers a wealth of questions, including:

  • When should I give my teenager their first drink?
  • Are young people drinking more or less now?
  • What effect does alcohol advertising have on young people?
  • Does cannabis use lead to the use of other drugs?
  • Should parents drug test their children?
  • How should parents talk to their children about Ice?
  • What should parents say if they discover their children are using drugs?
  • And many more

Click on the icon below to view the newsletter.

Our exchange students say they will miss Australia's landscapes and animals.

Exchange student reflections

20 February 2017

Jen Bateman

Some reflections from our five French students visiting from Angers.

By Jen Bateman, François-Xavier Auger, Nicolas Grand, Gabriel Le Roch, Shan Garcia and Marie Jugé

We have just said goodbye to five students from our Sister School in Angers, France, the Lycée David. Before they left they wrote some reflections on their stay with us.

Our impressions of Australia
We have enjoyed our trip to Australia very much. It is very different from what we are used to in France. We loved the landscape ? it is so dry and beautiful. Canberra is not a city like we are used to living in. The technology here is really developed and there is so much space everywhere! People are nice with each other and smile a lot ? they all seem happy. Wherever you go you always discover another beautiful landscape.

Our impressions of Radford College
The school is also very different from what we are used to. We aren't really fond of the uniform but it was a good experience to wear it. The campus is impressive; there are so many buildings that we got lost quite often. The general atmosphere in the school and the relationships between the students are very pleasant. The presence of more practical studies such as woodwork surprised us but we think it is a good thing.

What we will miss when we return to France
We will really miss the high temperatures and the pleasant climate because it is so good compared to France! We will also miss the beautiful landscapes and the animals and trees. Of course we will miss our exchange students and their families. They have been very nice to us, welcoming us into their homes. We want to thank everybody for our trip. We will miss you all!

The students enjoyed their trip to Australia very much.

Image for article: Sports Report 22 February

Sports Report 22 February

21 February 2017

Bernadette Leger, Sports Administrator

The latest cricket and rowing news and a reminder about winter sports registrations.

By Dianne Wilson, Sports Administrator

U13/1 v Tuggeranong T20 Match ? Tuesday, 14 February

Unfortunately, our U13/1 cricketers went down to Tuggeranong in their T20 match last Tuesday evening.Members of our U13 Cricket T20 team
Standout performances include Jake Smith Gibson's 16 runs off 25 balls before being run out and Vidu Ranatunga's bowling figures of 1/9 off 2 overs.

The boys are in for a tough final match of the season on Wednesday, 22 February against top-of-the-table Queanbeyan.

Student achievements

Congratulations to Jake Smith Gibson (Year 6), Darcy Macdonald (Year 7), Joey Slater (Year 6) and Lachlan Reid (Year 8), who were selected in the Cricket ACT Emerging Comets Team of the Year.

Two boys from each of the Cricket ACT Emerging Comets teams, from the U11s through to the U16s, were chosen to create the Team of the Year (team pictured at top).

A total of 12 boys were selected and with four Radford students included, we made up a third of the team. Well done!

By Vicky Spencer, Director of Rowing

Our girls excelled at the Kings Cup regatta.Annie Creer, Lisa Seberry, Georgie Sayers, Emma Harper and Tash Erb raced in the SG4x+ event at the Kings Cup on the weekend, winning a Gold medal by clear water back to second place.

Annie and Emma then dominated the schoolgirl double scull to win a second Gold medal of the day.

We hoped to aim for a third win to complete the triple, but a storm brought the crews off the water later in the day and racing was then cancelled.

We are excited to return to the Sydney International Regatta Centre and race at the Schoolgirls Head of the River event in a few weeks.

By Bernadette Leger, Sports Administrator

Winter sports registrations have now closed. If you would like to register your child for the upcoming season, please contact the below people directly.

Radford football news

8 February 2017

Dianne Wilson, Acting Director of Football – Term 1

All you need to know about football trials.

By Dianne Wilson, Acting Director of Football ? Term 1

Football trials (please note there have been recent trial date / time changes for several age groups).

Trial dates ? please see attached flyer (updated)

Radford will look to nominate Division 1 sides in as many age groups as we see fit.

This year Radford is planning to enter U8 teams into a northside-based competition played on Saturday mornings with training sessions to be held on Friday afternoons.

Coerver will once again provide skills sessions and mini games each Saturday at Radford from 9?10am for our K?1 students.

Please ensure you complete the online sports registration form and that your child attends the trials.

Please contact me at Dianne.Wilson@radford.act.edu.au if your child cannot make the trials (failure to do so may cost them a spot in a team); if you wish for your son/daughter to play up an age group or; if your child is currently playing at a higher level that Radford cannot offer (e.g. Premier League).

Please take a moment to familiarise yourself with the Radford Sports Policy, below.

Radford Sports Policy
Students are provided with the opportunity to be involved in a variety of sporting activities conducted outside school hours. Participation by students is on a voluntary basis but with the understanding that if a student is involved in a particular sporting activity, which is offered by Radford College, then the student gives priority to participation at the College. That is, students are expected to play for a Radford team.

Exemptions from the Radford Sports Policy are only given when Radford does not have a team participating in a division offered to a student by another club (or representative team playing in the club structure).

Please do not assume that Radford is not providing a team in a particular division or age group prior to discussions with the Director of the sport.

Are you interested in coaching, managing or refereeing? Please contact Dianne.Wilson@radford.act.edu.au for further information.

Image for article: Families enjoy P&F welcome back event

Families enjoy P&F welcome back event

22 February 2017

Reading Challenge celebration and movie screening incorporated into fun evening

By Communications Manager Mick Bunworth

Fine weather, food and entertainment drew many Radford College families to the P&F Welcome Barbecue on Friday night.

An estimated crowd of 500 people converged on the JA Mackinnon Oval with folding chairs and picnic rugs for the barbecue, Junior School Reading Challenge celebration and outdoor screening of the movie Paper Planes.

Outgoing P&F President John Shevlin thanked the hardworking committee members who kept the barbecues sizzling to ensure the crowd was well fed.

Mr Shevlin made special mention of P&F Management Committee member and Junior School teacher Dean O'Brien, for his organisation and liaison with the College and suppliers.

Older students organised games and activities which kept their younger buddies entertained until it was time for the Head of Junior School Mr Southwell to announce he had once again lost the summer holiday Reading Challenge.

Late last year, Mr Southwell had challenged all Junior School students and their families to continue reading and writing through the summer holidays, a challenge they clearly met with great enthusiasm.

Donning a Wee Willy Winkie outfit, Mr Southwell led the Reading Challenge Book Parade, which featured students and their parent in an impressive array of outfits and hats.

Students also decorated a large sombrero with feathers, pipe cleaners and streamers, which they presented to Principal Fiona Godfrey.

The Australian family movie Paper Planes starring Sam Worthington, David Wenham, Deborah Mailman and Ed Oxenbould, was a popular choice. It told the story of Dylan, a young boy who finds out that he has a talent for making paper planes and dreams of competing in the World Paper Plane Championships in Japan.

After the movie finished and the crowd started to disperse, Mr Southwell settled into his swag to sleep on the oval and dream up next year?s bet.



National History Challenge

Entries for the National History Challenge are now open.??

Entries are open to students from Year 1 to Year 12, but are not being organised directly by the College.

For more information, please visit www.historychallenge.org.au.??

Public Speaking, Years 7?12

Entries for the Australian Rostrum (ACT) Voice of Youth public speaking competition close on Sunday, 2 April.??

More information is available at http://www.rostrum.com.au/rvoy-act.

Student achievements

Congratulations Cricket ACT Emerging Comets Team of the Year players

Congratulations to Jake Smith Gibson (Year 6), Darcy Macdonald (Year 7), Joey Slater (Year 6) and Lachlan Reid (Year 8), who were selected in the Cricket ACT Emerging Comets Team of the Year.

Two boys from each of the Cricket ACT Emerging Comets teams, from the U11s through to the U16s, were chosen to create the Team of the Year.

A total of 12 boys were selected and with four Radford students included, we made up a third of the team. Well done!


APFACTS - 22 February 2017

APFACTS is the voice of non-government school parents (Catholic and Independent) in the ACT. For more information, visit our website at www.apfacts.org.au or find us on Facebook at??www.facebook.com/Apfacts

Read the latest newsletter.

School Sport ACT

SSACT Bulletin 28 June 2017

School Sport ACT (SSACT) is the peak body for School Sport delivery in the ACT.

SSACT actively promotes school sport for all ACT students through the support of regional, state and national representative opportunities and pathways.

View the latest SSACT Bulletin.